PASSIVE VOICE Thể bị động

PASSIVE VOICE (Thể bị động)

I. CÁCH CHUYỂN ĐỔI TỪ CÂU CHỦ ĐỘNG SANG CÂU BỊ ĐỘNG

 
Ex: Active: Susan wrote a letter.

Passive:A letter was written by Susan.

      Active: He has bought some books.
     Passive: Some books have been bought (by him).

II. CÁCH CHUYỂN ĐỔI HÌNH THỨC ĐỘNG TỪ CỦA MỘT SỐ THÌ

 
TENSES

ACTIVE FORM

PASSIVE FORM

Simple present
V1 / Vs(es) Am / is / are + P.P
Present continuous Am / is / are + V-ing Am / is / are + being + P.P
Present perfect
Has / have + P.P Has / have + been + P.P
Simple past
V2 / V-ed Was / were + P.P
Past continuous
Was / were + V-ing Was / were + being + P.P
Past perfect
Had + P.P Had + been + P.P
Simple future
Will / shall + V0 Will / shall + be + P.P
Future perfect
Will/ shall + have + P.P Will / shall + have + been + P.P

Ex: People speak English all over the world.
→   English is spoken all over the world.

      They built the museum in 1990.
→    The museum was built in 1990.
      Ann is washing the clothes.
→    The clothes are being washed by Ann.
      We have watched this film several times.
→   This film has been watched several times.
      She will give us another chance.

→   We will be given another chance.

They had made an announcement before I came.

→   An announcement had been made before I came.

Note:

Nếu tân ngữ trong câu bị động chỉ sự vật, sự việc thì ta dùng giới từ with thay by
Ex: Smoke filled the room. →    The room was filled with smoke.

– Trạng từ chỉ nơi chốn đứng trước by + O; trạng từ chỉ thời gian đứng sau by + O

III. CÁC DẠNG KHÁC TRONG CÂU BỊ ĐỘNG

1. Dạng động từ khiếm khuyết (Modal verbs)

        Modal verbs (can / may / should / ought to…) + be + P.P

Ex: We should encourage her to take that job.

→ She should be encouraged to take that job.

They ought to send us the application form.

→    The application form ought to be sent to us.

2. Dạng động từ nguyên mẫu: to be + P.P
Ex: She wishes them to inform the news.

→ She wishes to be informed the news.

3. Dạng V-ing: being + P.P                           
 Ex: I like being invited to parties.

4. Dạng   câu có 2 túc từ
S + V + Indirect O + Direct O
Cách 1:      S + be + P.P + Direct O + by O
Ex: My brother has bought   me    some English books.

           S                  V           In.O             D.O

→ I have been bought some English books by my brother.
 
Cách 2:       S + be + P.P + to / for + Indirect O + by O
Ex: My brother has bought me some English books.
→   Some English books have been bought for me by my brother.

     My friend told me an interesting story

→   An interesting story was told to me by my friend.

Note:
–          Các động từ thường đi với giới từ to là: give, send, show, lend, promise, hand, pay, read, throw, wish, offer, …
–          Các động từ thường đi với giới từ for là: buy, get, make, do, leave, save, …

 5. Dạng động từ chỉ ý kiến:say, think, report, believe, rumour, …

Active:      S + say / think + that + S2 + V2 + O2 …
Passive:    – It + is / was + said / thought … + that + S2 + V2 + O2 …

– S2 + is / was/ are … + said / thought … + to-inf … (hành động trong 2 mệnh đề xảy ra đồng thời hoặc hành động 2 xảy ra sau)

                – S2 + is / was/ are … + said / thought … + to have + V3   (hành động 2 xảy ra trước)
                – S2 + is / was/ are … + said / thought + to be + V-ing   (hành động 2 dùng thì tiếp diễn)

Ex: People said that he had left.
→ It was said that he had left.
→ He was said to have left.

Ex: They think he is a good doctor.
→ It is thought that he is a good doctor
→ He is thought to be a good doctor.

Ex: They said that John was living in London.
→ It was said that John was living in London.
→ John was said to be living in London.

Ex: They expect that the price of oil will go down next month.
→   It is expected that the price of oil will go down next month.
→   The price of oil is expected to go down next month.

6. Dạng nhấn mạnh (Cleft sentences):

It is / was + focus + who / that + be + P.P

Who: chỉ người

That: chỉ vật, nơi chốn, thời gian

Ex: They gave Mary a lot of presents.
→   It was Mary who was given a lot of presents.

       My friend sends me some flowers.

→   It is some flowers that are sent to me by my friend.

 * Note:

– Get + P.P có thể dùng thay cho be + P.P trong một số trường hợp

Ex: She got impressed by his sincerity.
→ She was impressed by his sincerity.

7. Thể sai khiến, nhờ vả:
Active:   S + have + O người + V1 + O vật

Acitive: S + get + O người + to-inf + O vật

Passive: S + have / get + O vật + V3 + (by + O người)

Ex: I had him repair my bicycle yesterday.

 → I had my bicycle repaired yesterday.
      I get her to make some coffee.
 → I get some coffee made (by her)

8. Động từ chỉ giác quan: see, watch, hear, look, taste,…

Active:   S + V + O + V1 / V-ing ..

Passive: S + be + V3 + to-inf / V-ing …

Ex: They saw her come in.

 → She was seen to come in.

They saw the lorry running down the hill.

 → The lorry was seen running down the hill.

9. Động từ let:

Active:    S + let + s.o + V1 …
Passive: S + be + allowed + to-inf ..

Ex: He let me go.        → I was allowed to go.

10. Động từ make:
Active:   S + make + s.o + V1 …

Passive: S + be + made + to-inf …

Ex: My mother made me clean the room.

   → I was made to clean the room.

11. Sau “There be” có thể dùng động từ nguyên mẫu dạng chủ động hoặc bị động

Ex: There is a lot of work to do / to be done.
There are some letters to write / to be written.

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