NGỮ PHÁP ÔN THI ĐẠI HỌC MÔN TIẾNG ANH – 26 CHỦ ĐIỂM

ÔN THI ĐẠI HỌC MÔN TIẾNG ANH

GRAMMAR

Một số điểm ngữ pháp cần lưu ý:

1. Danh từ ghép:
– là danh từ gồm hai hoặc nhiều từ kết hợp với nhau. Danh từ ghép có thể được viết thành hai từ riêng biệt, có
gạch ngang giữa hai từ hoặc kết hợp thành một từ.
Ex: world peace, non-stop train, writing-table
– cách thành lập danh từ ghép:
a. Danh từ + danh từ (Noun + noun)
toothpick (tăm) schoolboy tennis ball bus driver river bank
b. Tính từ + danh từ (Adjective + Noun)
quicksilver (thủy ngân) greenhouse (nhà kính) blackbird (chim két)
c. Danh từ + danh động từ (Noun + gerund): chỉ một loại công việc
weigh-lifting (cử tạ) fruit-picking (việc hái quả) coal-mining (việc khai thác than)
d. Danh động từ + danh từ (Gerund + noun)
waiting-room (phòng chờ) swimming pool (hồ bơi)
driving licence (bằng lái xe) washing-machine (máy giặt)
e. Các trường hợp khác:
– Tính từ + động từ: whitewash (nước vôi)
– Động từ + danh từ: pickpocket (tên móc túi)
– Trạng từ + động từ: outbreak (sự bùng nổ)
– Động từ + trạng từ: breakdown (sự suy sụp)
– Danh từ + giới từ: passer-by (khách qua đường), looker-on (người xem)
– Danh từ + tính từ: secretary-general (tổng thư ký, tổng bí thư)

2. Danh từ số nhiều của những từ có nguồn gốc từ tiếng Hy Lạp hoặc Latin:
Số ít Số nhiều Nghĩa

Bacterium bacteria vi khuẩn

curriculum curricula chương trình giảng dạy

datum data dữ kiện

criterion criteria tiêu chuẩn

phenomenon phenomena hiện tượng

basis bases nền tảng

crisis crises cuộc khủng hoảng

analysis analyses sự phân tích

hypothesis hypotheses giả thuyết
3. Danh từ đếm được và danh từ không đếm được
* Cách thành lập danh từ số nhiều:
– Thêm –s vào danh từ số ít
– Thêm –es sau danh từ số ít tận cùng bằng s, ss, sh, ch, x, z, zz
– Thêm –s nếu trước o là một nguyên âm: radios, micros
– Thêm –es nếu trước o là một phụ âm: potatoes, tomatoes, heroes
– Thêm – s nếu trước y là nguyên âm: plays, boys
– Thêm – es nếu trước y là phụ âm: lorries
– Danh từ tận cùng bằng f /fe đổi thành –ves: leaf  leaves thief  thieves
– Thêm –s vào sau các danh từ tận cùng bằng f / fe khác: beliefs,cafes
– Một số từ có số nhiều bất qui tắc:
child – children foot – feet goose – geese
ox – oxen man – men mouse – mice
tooth – teeth woman – women sheep – sheep deer – deer

4. Từ chỉ số lượng:
Với danh từ đếm được Với danh từ không đếm dược
– some / any (một vài) – some / any (một ít)
– many – much
– a large number of – a large amount of
– a great number of – a great deal of
– plenty of – plenty of
– a lot of / lots of – lot of / lots of
– few / a few – little / a little
– every / each
– several (nhiều)
– some: dùng trong câu khẳng định, câu yêu cầu, lời mời, lời đề nghỉ.
– any: dùng trong câu phủ định, nghi vấn
– many, much dùng trong câu phủ định, nghi vấn
– a lot of, plenty of, a great number of … dùng trong câu khẳng định
– many, much luôn dùng trong câu khẳng định có các từ very, too, so, as
– few, little (ít, không nhiều): thường có nghĩa phủ định, ít không đủ để dùng
– a few / a little (một vài, một ít): thường có nghĩa khẳng định, ít đủ để dùng
He drank so much wine that he felt sick.
Would you like some more coffee?
We haven’t got any butter. There aren’t any chairs in the room.
Hurry up! There is little time.
Let’s go and have a drink. We have got a little time before the train leaves.
– All / most / some / no + (adjective) + danh từ số nhiều / danh từ không đếm được
All children are fond of candy.
Most cheese is made from cow’s milk.
– All of / most of / some of / none of / each of + a / an / the / my / his / this / đại từ
Most of her friends live abroad.
Some of those people are very friendly.
These books are all Jane’s. None of them belong to me.

5. Số của động từ:
– Số thập phân, phân số, sự đo lường + động từ số ít
Three quarters of a ton is too much.
– All, some, plenty + of + danh từ số ít động từ số ít
– Half, part, a lot, .. + of + danh từ số nhiều động từ số nhiều
Some of the milk was sour.
A lot of my friends want to emigrate.
– No + danh từ số ít động từ số ít
– No + danh từ số nhiều động từ số nhiều
No people think alike.
No student has finished their assignment.
EXERCISE
Choose the correct form of the verb
1. The result of Dr. Noll’s experiment was / were published in a scientific journal.
2. One of your children has / have lost a shoe.
3. A number of police officers here works / work with dogs.
4. There is / are some interesting pictures in today’s paper.
5. Three-fourths of the pizzas has / have been already eaten.
6. Not all policemen is / are allowed to carry guns.
7. The United Nations has / have its headquarters in New York.
8. Measles is / are cured without much difficulty nowadays.
9. Three days isn’t / aren’t long enough for a good holiday.
10. The trousers you bought for me doesn’t / don’t fit me.
Put in a few, few, a little, little
1. I don’t think I can lift this box on my own. I need __________ help.
2. The postman doesn’t often come here. We receive ___________ letters.
3. Sarah is exhausted. She’s having _________________ days’ holiday next week.
4. “Have you ever been to Paris?” “Yes, I have been there ____________ times.”
5. Listen carefully. I’m going to give you ____________ advice.
6. I can speak ____________ words of Swedish, but I am not very fluent.
7. David quite likes golf, but unfortunately he has ___________ ability.
Choose the correct words.
1. We didn’t spend much / many money.
2. You must be quick. We have little / a little time.
3. They have got so much / lots of money that they don’t know what to do with it.
4. Did you take many / a lot of photographs when you were on holiday?
5. Would you like less / fewer coffee than this?
6. If you have some / any problems, you can discuss them with your group leaders.
7. She spent a large number of / a great deal of time on the project.
8. We get much / a lot of rain here, but we don’t get many / much storms.
9. The shop is very quiet. There are a few / only a few customers have come in.
10. How many / How much cups of coffee have you taken?
Choose the correct answer
1. Bill is very lazy. He never does ____________ work.
A. some B. any C. no D. few
2. It was a great party. ___________ enjoyed it.
A. Somebody B. All C. All of us D. Every of us
3. We couldn’t buy anything because ___________ of the shops were open.
A. all B. half C. most D. none
4. The village was very small. There were __________ houses.
A. a few B. only a few C. some D. only a little
5. I don’t want to buy any of these books. I’ve got ________.
A. all B. all them C. everything D. them all
6. Would you mind waiting __________ minutes?
A. a few B. a little C. few D. little
7. We tried a lot of hotels but __________ of them had any rooms.
A. some B. most C. any D. none
8. I spend _________ my spare time gardening.
A. most B. the most of C. most of D. most of the

6. Conjunctions: liên từ
a. Liên từ kết hợp: dùng để nối từ, cụm từ hoặc mệnh đề độc lập có cùng chức năng ngữ pháp: and, but, or,
nor, so, yet (tuy nhiên, nhưng), for (vì)
The new method is simple, yet effective.
I told her to leave, for I was very tired.
– Liên từ tương quan: not only … but also, both … and, either … or, neither …. nor, whether …or (có …hay),
Peter neither spoke nor did anything.
I have not decided whether to travel abroad or buy a new car.
– Một số trạng từ dùng như từ nối để nối hai mệnh đề hoặc câu độc lập: hence (do đó), however (tuy nhiên),
furthermore (hơn nữa), moreover (hơn nữa), therefore (vì vậy), nevertheless (tuy nhiên), meanwhile (trong khi đó), otherwise (nếu không thì, kẻo), consequently (vì vậy, cho nên)
I had better write it down, otherwise I will forget it.
We must be early; otherwise we won’t get a seat.
b. Liên từ phụ thuộc: nối mệnh đề phụ với mệnh đề chính: after, before, since, when, whenever, while, until, till, as, where, wherever, because, so that, in order that, although, though, even though, even if, unless, in case,
provided / providing that, supposed / supposing that, as if, as though, as long as (miễn là,với điều kiện là)…
– besides (giới từ): bên cạnh. Besides + Nound / pronoun / V-ing
Besides doing the cooking, I look after the garden.
– besides (trạng từ): ngoài ra, đứng trước mệnh đề
I can’t go now. I am too busy. Besides my passport is out of date.
– in spite of the fact that / despite the fact that + S + V
– reason why + S + V: lý do tại sao
The reason why grass is green was a mystery to the little boy.
– reason for + Noun: lý do của
The reason for the disaster was engine failure, not human error.

7. Wish / If only
Hiện tại: S + wish + S + QKĐ
If only + S + QKĐ
I am poor now.  I wish / If only I were rich.
Quá khứ: S + wish + S + QKHT
If only + S + QKHT
I didn’t meet her .  I wish / if only I had met her.
Tương lai: S + wish + S + would / could + V1
If only + S + would / could + V1
I wish I could attend your wedding next week.

8. Chỉ mục đích:

Lưu ý khi mệnh đề chính và mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ mục đích không cùng chủ từ thì không
nên dùng cụm từ chỉ mục đích. Ta có thể dùng cấu trúc for + O + to-inf
I left the door unlocked so that my son could get in.
I left the door unlocked for my son to get in.

9. Chỉ kết quả:
– so many / so few + danh từ đếm được số nhiều + that + clause
– so much / little + danh từ không đếm được + that + clause
There were so few people at the meeting that it was canceled.
I have got so little time that I can’t manage to have lunch with you.
– Cấu trúc khác của so … that
S + V + so + adj + a + Noun (đếm được số ít) + that + S + V
It was so hot a day that we decided to stay indoors.
– Có thể dùng such trước danh từ không có tính từ
She is such a baby that we never dare to leave her alone. (Nó trẻ con đến nỗi chúng tôi không bao giờ
dám để nó ở nhà một mình)
– So được dùng với many, much, few, little; such được dùng với a lot of
Why did you buy so much food? = Why did you buy such a lot of food?
– So được đặt ở đầu câu để nhấn mạnh, theo sau phải đảo ngữ
So terrible was the storm that whole roofs were ripped out.
EXERCISE
Choose the best answer
1. He kept reading ________ he fell asleep.
A. until B. as C. for D. and
2. We open the window __________ fresh air could flow into the room.
A. for B. in order to C. so that D. because
3. He is a very weak president; ___________, most people support him.
A. otherwise B. therefore C. but D. nevertheless
4. I like Tom and Ann. They are ___________ nice people.
A. such a B. such C. so D. so many
5. I didn’t realize you lived __________ long way from the city center.
A. such a B. such C. so D. too
6. _________ before, his first performance for the amateur dramatic group was a success.
A. Though having never acted B. Despite he had never acted
C. As he had never acted D. In spite of his never having acted
7. His father had promised to buy him a computer __________ he behaved himself.
A. in case that B. after C. provided that D. while
8. _________ I ask him for the money he owes me, he says he will bring it in a few days but I don’t think he
has got it at all.
A. Whenever B. However C. Whatever D. Wherever
9. Would you be so kind _________ open the window for me, please?
A. that B. as to C. as D. that you
10. “Those students study a lot.” “Yes, _________ students are very serious.”
A. almost of B. almost C. most of D. most
11. We stayed in that hotel despite the noise.
A. Despite the hotel is noisy, we stayed there.
B. We stayed in the noisy hotel and we liked it.
C. No matter how noisy the hotel was, we stayed there.
D. Because of the noise, we stayed in the hotel.
12. I haven’t got ___________. That English book.
A. much money for buying B. any money to buy
C. some money to buy D. no money to buy
13. I tried to solve the problem _________ the noise and interruptions.
A. because of B. according to C. in case of D. in spite of
14. “John should have warned you about that.” “Yes, __________, he’s still my good friend.”
A. moreover B. despite that C. although D. on the contrary
15. “What’s the answer to the problem two?” “I don’t know, and even _________ I wouldn’t tell you.”
A. I did B. though I did C. if I do D. if I did
16. “Can you wait while I run into the library?” “OK, __________ you hurry.”
A. even though B. when C. as long as D. unless
17. She came in quietly __________ not to wake the baby.
A. as if B. if so C. such as D. so as
18. The little girl wouldn’t go on the trip ___________ her father went, too.
A. unless B. also C. but D. except
19. Almost of the trees in this plantation have had to be cut down and burned.
A B C D
20. ___________ he did was quite wrong.
A. If B. What C. That D. Which

10. Chỉ lý do:
– because of/ due to / owing to + Noun / pronoun/ V-ing
Owing to his carelessness, we had an accident.
She stayed home because of feeling unwell.
– because / since / as / seeing that / due to the fact that + S + V
As you weren’t there, I left a message.
Seeing that the weather was bad, they didn’t take part in the trip.
– for, in that, in as much as cũng có thể dùng để đưa ra lý do trong lối nói trang trọng. (trước for phải có dấu phẩy)
– now that = because of the fact that
Now that the exams are over, I can enjoy myself.

11. Chỉ sự nhượng bộ:
– No matter + what / who / when / where / why + S + V
– No matter + how (adj / adv) + S + V
– Whatever (+ noun) / whoever / whenever / wherever + S + V
– However (+ adj) + S + V
No matter who you are, I still love you.
Don’t trust him, no matter what he says.
Phone me when you arrive, no matter how late it is.
Whatever problems you have, you can phone me.
Whatever you say, I don’t believe you.
I’m not opening the door, whoever you are.
However much he eats, he never gets fat.
– adj / adv + as / though + S + V: mặc dù, dù
Rich as he is, he is unhappy. = Rich though he is, he is unhappy.
12. Chỉ cách thức: thường bắt đầu bằng as, as if, as though
He could not come as he promised
– As if / As though: dùng diễn tả điều kiện không có thật ở hiện tại hoặc ở quá khứ
* Hiện tại: S + V + as if / as though + S + V (QKĐ)
* Quá khứ: S + V + as if / as though + S + V (QKHT)
She dresses as if she were an actress.
He talked about New York as though he had been there before.
13. HAD BETTER / HAD BETTER NOT + V1: nên, tốt hơn nên
You had better take your umbrella with you today.
You had better not go out in the rain.

14. WOULD RATHER
S + would rather (+ not) + V1 + (than) … thích hơn
S + would rather + (that) + S + V (QKĐ / QKHT) …
I would rather stay at home.
I would rather stay at home than go to the movie.
I would rather you went home now.
– would prefer + to-inf
– would rather …than = would prefer …rather than
I’d rather stay at home tonight than go to the cinema.
He would prefer to drive rather than take the bus.

15. Modal Verbs + be + V-ing: dự đoán sự việc có thể đang xảy ra
It’s 9 a.m. He must be working.

16. Modal Verbs + have + V3/-ed: dự đoán sự việc không xảy ra trong quá khứ
Peter failed the exam again. He must have been very sad.

17. Thể bị động:
– Có hai tân ngữ
My mother gave me some money.
I.O D.O
I was given some money by my mother.
Some money was given to me by my mother.
Khi đem túc từ chỉ vật làm chủ từ trong câu bị động có hai túc từ cần chú ý thêm các từ: to, for. Những
từ đi với to: send, write, give. Đi với for: buy
– Động từ chỉ giác quan: see, look, hear, notice, taste …
Active: S + V + O + V1 / V-ing
Passive: S + be + V3/-ed + to-inf / V-ing.
– Từ chỉ cảm xúc: like, love, hate, wish, prefer, hope …
Active: S + V + O + to-inf
Passive: S + V + O + to be + V3/-ed
She wanted her mother to give her some money.
 She wanted some money to be given.

18. to-inf / V-ing / V1
– help + O + to-inf / V1
– had better, would rather, had sooner, why not + V1
Why not stay for lunch?
– advise, recommend, allow, permit, encourage, require + V-ing
– advise, recommend, allow, permit, encourage, require + O + to-inf
They don’t permit us to smoke here.
They don’t permit smoking here.
– what, when, where, how …+ to-inf.
– after, before, since, when, while + V-ing
EXERCISE
Choose the best answer
1. Ladybugs are brightly colored beetles that help farmers by __________.
A. eat other insects B. to eat other insects C. eating other insects D. other insects’ eating
2. To answer accurately is more important than ___________.
A. a quick finish B. to finish quickly C. to finish quick D. you finish quickly
3. Both cattle and railroads help building the city of Chicago.
A B C D
4. Nancy isn’t used to walking so far.
A. Nancy used to walk farther B. Nancy doesn’t like to walk so far
C. Nancy isn’t accustomed to walking very far. D. Nancy needed help to walk so far.
5. He survived the operation thanks to skillful surgery.
A. He survive because he was a skillful surgeon B. There was no skillful surgery, so he died
C. Without skillful surgery, he wouldn’t have survived the operation.
D. In spite of the surgery, he didn’t survive.
6. I regret lending him money.
A. I didn’t lend him money. B. I wish I had lent him money.
C. He didn’t borrow money from me. D. I lent him money and I regret now.
7. ____________ occasions for congratulations.
A. Birthdays that usually considered B. Usually considering birthdays
C. Birthdays are usually considered D. That considered birthdays usually
8. John said that no other car could go __________.
A. so fast like his car B. so fast as his car can D. so fast as his car D. the same fast like his car
9. Several of these washers and dryers are out of order and ___________.
A. need to be repairing B. repairing is required to them
C. require that they be repaired D. need to be repaired
10. It can sometimes __________ a home.
A. to take months to sell B. take several months to sell
C. selling takes several months D. to sell takes several months

19. So sánh:
với danh từ: more + noun + than
– much, far, a lot, a little: được đặt trước so sánh hơn để nhấn mạnh
I have more books than Peter does.
She is much more intelligent than I think.
– Khi nói gấp bao nhiêu lần, ta dùng twice as …as, three times as …as
Their house is about three times as big as ours.

20. Rút ngắn mệnh đề:
– hai hành động có cùng chủ từ xảy ra cùng lúc  hành động sau được diễn đạt bằng cụm hiện tại phân từ (Ving)
He walked along. He whistled a happy tune.
He walked along whistling a happy tune.
– hai hành động có cùng chủ từ xảy ra liên tiếp nhau  hành động xảy ra trước được diễn đạt bằng cụm hiện
tại phân từ (V-ing) hoặc phân từ hoàn thành (Having + V3/-ed)
She opened the bottle and then poured milk into his glass.
Opening the bottle, she poured milk into his glass.
He had finished all work; he went out for a while.
Having finished all work, he went out for a while.
– dùng quá khứ phân từ cho mệnh đề bị động
He lived alone. He had been forgotten by everybody.
He lived alone, forgotten by everybody.
He was waken by a strange noise. He couldn’t sleep any more.
Waken by a strange noise, he couldn’t sleep any more.

21. It’s time / It’s high time
– It’s time / It’s high time + (for + O) + to-inf
– It’s time / It’s high time + S + V (QKĐ)
It’s high time you got a job.
It’s time to buy a new car.

22. Mệnh đề quan hệ:
Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định có thể được rút gọn bằng cụm danh từ
We visited Dalat, which is a city of Lam Dong Province.
 We visited Dalat, a city of Lam Dong Province.
George Washington, who was the first president of the United States, was a general in the army.
 George Washington, the first president of the United States, was a general in the army.

23. Câu cảm thán:
– How + adj How beautiful!
– How + adj / adv + S + V How beautifully you sing!
– How + S + V How you’ve grown! (Con lớn nhanh quá)
– What + a / an (+ adj) + danh từ đếm được số ít What an intelligent girl!
– What (+ adj) + danh từ không đếm được, danh từ số nhiều What awful weather!
– What (+ a / an) + adj + N + S + V What a beautiful dress you are wearing!

24. Trật tự tính từ:
GROUP EXAMPLE
1. Từ chỉ định, mạo từ, sở hữu … – a, an, the, this, these, those, some, several
2. Từ số lượng – one, ten, nine …
3. Ý kiến – wonderful, lovely, beautiful …
4. Kích thước – big, small, long, fat,
5. Chất lượng – important, famous, warm, modern …
6. Tuổi tác – old, young, new
7. Hình dạng – round, oval …
8. Màu sắc – red, white, blue
9. Nguồn gốc – Chinese, Japanese
10. Chất liệu – stone, plastic, paper, leather
11. Loại – an electric kettle, political matters
12. Mục đích – walking sticks, writing boots

25. Mệnh đề danh từ:
– Mệnh đề danh từ có chức năng như một danh từ và thường bắt đầu bằng các từ nghi vấn: that, what, who,
whose, which, where, when, why, how, whether, if
– Mệnh đề danh từ có thể làm:
a. Chủ ngữ trong câu:
That he can’t come is disappointing.
What he is talking about is interesting.
How the prisoner escaped is a complete mystery.
Whether she comes or not is unimportant to me.
b. Tân ngữ (túc từ) của động từ:
Please tell me where you live.
I wonder if he needs help.
I know that you must be tired after a long journey.
c. Tân ngữ cho giới từ:
We argued for hours about when we should start.
Pay attention to what I am saying.
d. Bổ ngữ cho câu: (thường đứng sau động từ to be)
That is not what I want.
What surprised me was that he spoke English very well.
e. Mệnh đề đồng cách cho danh từ (mệnh đề quan hệ)
The news that we are having a holiday tomorrow is not true.
Note: Trong mệnh đề danh từ, chủ ngữ đứng trước động từ. Khong đảo ngữ như trong câu nghi vấn.
I couldn’t hear what he said.
I wonder whose house that is.

26. Đảo ngữ
Hình thức đảo ngữ được dùng khi:
Trạng ngữ phủ định hoặc các từ giơi hạn (hardly, seldom, rarely, little, nerver) đứng đầu câu
Never before have I seen such an awful behaviour.
Seldom does she go to school late.
– Các trạng từ thường theo sau bằng hình thức đảo ngữ: never, seldom, rarely, hardly, no sooner …than, only
by, only in this way, not only …but also, only then, only later, not often, scarcely ..when
– Only after, only when, only if, not until/ till có hình thức đảo ngữ ở mệnh đề chính.
Not until you finish your homework can you watch TV.
Only when I called her did I know that she was ill.
– Câu điều kiện bỏ if  đảo ngữ
Were he here, he would help us.
– Cụm so + adj / adv hoặc such + be + noun  đảo ngữ
So sad was she that she could not say anything.
Such was the good book that I couldn’t put it down.
– Trạng ngữ chỉ nơi chốn, phương hướng đứng đầu câu  đảo toàn bộ động từ ra trước chủ từ.
Under the bed were there the old shoes.
Out into the street ran the thieves. (Những tên trộm chạy ra đường)
– Here, there, first, last đứng đầu câu  đảo toàn bộ động từ ra trước chủ từ
There comes the bus.
First is standing the team leader. (Đứng đầu là người trưởng nhóm)
– So, neither, nor đứng đầu câu
I work as a teacher. So do I.
She can’t swim. Neither can he.
EXERCISE
Choose the best answer
1. ___________ his terrible secret.
A. Did they learn only later B. Only later did they learn
C. Only later they learnt D. Only later they did learn
2. By the gate __________.
A. a little girl stood B. stood a little girl C. did a little girl stand D. a little girl did stand
3. Scarcely __________ out of the bed when _________.
A. had I got / did the doorbell ring B. had I got / the doorbell rang
C. I had got / did the doorbell ring D. I had got / the doorbell rang
4. Not a single word __________.
A. said she B. she says C. did she say D. she said
5. Only after the film started __________ that __________ it before.
A. I realized / I had seen B. did I realize / I had seen
C. I realized / had I seen D. did I realize / had I seen
6. _________ will we let you live independently.
A. Not until do you grow up B. Until you grow up
C. Until do you grow up D. Not until you grow up
7. _________ saying was so important that I asked everyone to stop talking and listen.
A. What the woman was B. That the woman was C. The woman was D. What was the woman
8. I don’t know how many __________, but it sounds like they have a dozen.
A. children do they have B. children they have
C. do they have children D. they have children
9. Does anybody know ___________ on the ground?
A. how long this plane will be B. how long will this plane be
C. how long will be this plane D. that how long this plane will be
10. There’s too much noise in this room. I can’t hear what ___________.
A. is the professor saying B. that the professor is saying
C. is saying the professor D. the professor is saying
11. Neil Armstrong, the first person __________ on the moon, reported that the surface was fine.
A. that set foot B. set foot C. setting foot D. to set foot
12. Only a few movies __________ on TV are suitable for children.
A. which show B. showing C. shown D. are shown
13. What was that notice ____________?
A. at that you were looking B. you were looking at
C. you were looking at it D. which you were looking
14. Water, ____________, is also one of the most abundant compounds on earth.
A. is one of the most critical elements for human survival
B. one of the most critical elements for human survival
C. of which one of the most critical elements for human survival
D. one of the most critical elements for human survival which
15. __________, he began to make friends more easily.
A. Having entered school in the new city, it was found that
B. After entering a new school
C. When he had been entering the new school
D. Upon entering into the new school
16. That magnificent ___________ temple was constructed by the Chinese.
A. eight-centuries-old B. eight-century’s-old C. ole-eight-century D. eight-century-old
17. _________ migrate long distances is well documented.
A. That it is birds B. That birds C. Birds that D. It is that birds
18. _________ through a telescope, Venus appears to go through changes in size and shape.
A. It is seen B. Seeing C. When seen D. It has seen
19. Your new car __________ as well as speedy.
A. looks comfortable B. comfortably looks C. looks comfortably D. looks is comfortable
20. _________ problems in sailing in tropical seas is the coral reefs.
A. One of the biggest B. The biggest one C. Of the biggest one D. There are the biggest

27. Phrasal verbs:
– account for do, vì – bear out = confirm xác nhận
– blow out dập tắt lửa (thổi) – break down hư hỏng, phá vỡ
– break into đột nhập – break out bùng nổ, bùng phát
– bring in = introduce giới thiệu – bring up = raise nuôi nấng
– burn down thiêu trụi – call for ghé qua
– call in ghé thăm – call of = cancel hủy bỏ
– call on = visit thăm – call up = telephone gọi điện
– carry on = continue tiếp tục – carry out = execute tiến hành
– catch up with bắt kịp – clear up = tidy dọn dẹp
– close down đóng cửa (doanh nghiệp) – come about = happen xảy ra
– come across tình cờ gặp ai – come off = succeed thành công
– come along / on nhanh lên – come over ghé nhà
– come up xảy ra, xuất hiện – count on / upon tin vào, dựa vào
– cut down = reduce giảm – cut off ngừng cung cấp
– die out tuyệt chủng, mất hẳn – drop in ghé qua
– be fed up with buồn phiền, chán – fill in điền thông tin
– fix up = arrange sắp xếp – get by = manage xoay xở
– get down làm thất vọng – get off xuống xe
– get on len xe – give out = distribute phân phát
– go over = examine xem xét, kiểm tra – hand in nộp
– hold on = wait đợi – hold up = stop, delay hoãn, ngừng
– leave out = omit bỏ quên, bỏ sót – look back on = remember nhớ lại
– look down on coi thường – make out hiểu được
– make up bịa đặt – make up for bù, đền bù
– pick out chọn ra – pull down phá hủy, phá sập
– put forward = suggest đề nghị – put in for đòi hỏi, xin
– put out = extinguish tắt đèn, lửa – put up with chịu đựng
– run across tình cờ gặp ai – see off tiễn ai
– run out of hết – sell off bán giảm giá
– send for mời đến, triệu tập – set off / out khởi hành
– show around đưa đi tham quan – show off phô trương, khoe khoang
– show up = arrive đến – shut up ngừng nói
– stand out nổi bật – take on đảm nhận công việc
– take over đảm nhiệm, tiếp tục – take up chiếm (thời gian, sức lực)
– talk over = discuss thảo luận – think over = consider cân nhắc, nghĩ kỹ
– throw away / out ném đi – try on thử quần áo
– turn down = refuse từ chối – turn into trở thành, biến thành
– wear out mòn, rách – work out = calculate tính toán

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