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INVERSION (ĐẢO NGỮ)
Tham khảo từ “Rèn luyện kỹ năng viết tiếng Anh” của NXB Đại học QG Hà Nội
Trong tiếng Anh, khi trong câu có những từ hoặc cụm từ sau, người ta thường đặt chúng ở đầu câu để nhấn mạnh ý nghĩa của câu. Đồng thời động từ trong câu được đặt như dạng câu hỏi. Điều này được gọi là đảo ngữ.
Nguyên tắc chung:
1)- Với động từ BE: …… BE S ………
2)- Với động từ thường:
a)- Ở các thì đơn (HT đơn, QK đơn): ……. DO/DOES/DID S V …………
b)- Ở các thì hoàn thành (HTHT , QKHT): ……. HAVE/HAS/HAD S PP/V3 …………
3)- Với các động từ tình thái (MV): ………. MV S V ……………..
I-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI NO VÀ NOT:
– I will lend you no money from now on. ĐN:- No money will I lend you from now on.
– I wont lend you any money from now on. ĐN:- Not any money will I lend you from now on.
II-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI CÁC TRẠNG TỪ PHỦ ĐỊNH:
Never (không bao giờ), rarely = seldom = little (ít khi, hiếm khi, hầu như không), hardly (ever) (hầu như không bao giờ).
– I will never speak to him again. ĐN:- Never will I speak to him again.
– He has rarely got mark 10 in maths. ĐN:- Rarely has he got mark 10 in maths.
– I seldom listen to rock music. ĐN:- Seldom do I listen to rock music.
– She little understands me. ĐN:- Little does she understand me.
– They hardly (ever) speak in public. ĐN:- Hardly (ever) do they speak in public.
– She is never late for school. ĐN:- Never is she late for school.
II-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI:
No sooner …… than; Hardly/Barely/Scarcely…… when/before…….. (Vừa mới ….. thì…….)
1)- No sooner had S PP/V3 than clause (QKĐ)
2)- Hardly/Barely/Scarcely had S PP/V3 when/before clause (QKĐ)
-I had no sooner arrived home than the phone rang.
ĐN:- No sooner had I arrived home than the phone rang.
-I had hardly arrived home when/before the phone rang.
ĐN:- Hardly had I arrived home when/before the phone rang.
III-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI ONLY:
– Only after N/V-ing: chỉ sau khi. – Only later: Chỉ sau này
– Only once: chỉ một lần – Only then : chỉ đến lúc đó
– Only when clause : chi đến khi – Only if clause : chỉ nếu
– Only by N/V-ing : chỉ bằng cách – Only with N/V-ing: chỉ với.
– Only in this/that way : chỉ bằng cách này/đó
– I realized that I had forgotten to put on a stamp only after posting the letter.
ĐN:- Only after posting the letter did I realize that I had forgotten to put on a stamp.
– She will love him only when she understands him.
ĐN:- Only when she understands him will she love him.
– We can pass the exam only by working harder.
ĐN:- Only by working harder can we pass the exam.
– We will be successful only in this way.
ĐN:- Only in this way will we be successful.
– You are allowed to enter this room only if I have given permission.
ĐN:- Only if I have given permission are you allowed to enter this room.
IV- ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI CÁC CỤM GIỚI TỪ CÓ NO:
– At no time: chưa từng bao giờ
– In no way: không còn cách nào
– On no condition: tuyệt đối không
– On no account: không vì bất cứ lí do gì
– Under/In no circumstances: trong bất cứ hoàn cảnh nào cũng không.
– For no reasons = On no account : không vì bất cứ lí do gì.
– No longer: không còn nữa
– He never knew she came from a rich family.
ĐN1:- At no time did he know she came from a rich family.
ĐN2:- Never did he know she came from a rich family.
– Keith certainly cant be held responsible for the accident.
ĐN:- In no way can Keith be held responsible for the accident.
– Passengers aren’t permitted to open the doors under/in any circumstances.
ĐN:- Under/In no circumstances are passengers permitted to open the doors.
– He no longer works as an accountant. He has just found another job.
ĐN:- No longer does he works as an accountant. He …………………………..
V-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI SO ………….. THAT VÀ SUCH ………. THAT :
1)- SO ……….. THAT :
– He worked so hard that he forgot his lunch.
ĐN:- So hard did he worked that he forgot his lunch.
– The play is so interesting that the theatre is likely to be full every night.
ĐN1:- So interesting is the play that the theatre is likely to be full every night.
ĐN2:- Such is the interest of the play that the theatre is likely to be full every night.
– He bought so many books that he couldn’t read them all.
ĐN: So many books did he buy that he couldn’t read them all.
– Alice has so much homework that she can’t finish it all.
ĐN: So much homework does Alice have that she can’t finish it all.
Note: Dùng SO MANY/FEW/MUCH/LITTLE N không dùng SUCH.
2)- SUCH ……………. THAT :
– It was such a boring speech that I got sleepy.
ĐN:- Such was a boring speech that I got sleepy.
Note: trong trường hợp BE SO MUCH/GREAT đổi thành SUCH BE NOUN
– The force of the storm was so great that trees were uprooted.
ĐN:- Such was the force of the storm that trees were uprooted.
VI-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI : NOT ONLY …………. BUT ALSO (không những mà còn)
NOT ONLY mệnh đề đảo BUT ……… ALSO mệnh đề thường
– He is not only good at English but he can also draw very well.
ĐN:- Not only is he good at English but he can also draw very well.
VII-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI: NOT UNTIL/TILL (THEN/LATER)
NOT UNTIL/TILL mệnh đề thường mệnh đề đảo. (mãi đến khi)
– I didnt know where I was until I asked a passer-by.
ĐN:- Not untill I asked a passer-by did I know where I was.
NOT UNTIL/TILL THEN/LATER mệnh đề đảo. (mãi đến lúc đó/sau này)
– I didn’t recognize him until later.
ĐN:- Not until later did I recognize him.
VIII-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI NEITHER/NOR VÀ SO:
– They dont like chicken, and neither/nor do I.
– She can play the guitar, and so can I.
* ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI NEITHER………………..NOR :
– There is neither excitement nor entertainment in this small town.
ĐN: Neither is there excitement nor entertainment in this small town.
IX-ĐẢO NGỮ TRONG SO SÁNH VỚI AS VÀ THAN:
– The cake was excellent, as the coffee was.
ĐN:- The cake was excellent, as was the coffee.
– I thought, as my friend did, that the exam would be difficult.
ĐN:-I thought, as did my friend, that the exam would be difficult.
– He has more money than you do.
ĐN:- He has more money than do you.
X-ĐẢO NGỮ TRONG CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN:
1-CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 1:
IF S V ……. ———> SHOULD S V ……….
– If you hear the fire alarm, leave the building at once.
ĐN:- Should you hear the fire alarm, leave the building at once.
– If anybody phones me, please tell them I’m busy.
ĐN:- Should anybody phone me, please tell them I’m busy.
2-CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 2:
a-CÓ ĐỘNG TỪ TO BE:
IF S WERE ………………….. —————-> WERE S ………………..
– If I were you, I wouldn’t do that. ĐN:-Were I you, I wouldn’t do that.
b-CÓ ĐỘNG TỪ THƯỜNG:
IF S P/V2 ………………… —————> WERE S TO V ……………
– If he worked more slowly, he wouldn’t make many mistakes.
ĐN:-Were he to work more slowly, he wouldn’t make many mistakes.
3-CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 3:
IF S HAD PP/V3 ……………………… ——————-> HAD S PP/V3 ………….
-If they had realized the danger, they would have done it differently.
ĐN:-Had they realized the danger, they would have done it differently.
Note: Đối với cả ba loại câu điều kiện, nếu mệnh đề IF là phủ định thì ta đặt NOT sau chủ từ.
– If you don’t believe what I said, ask your mother.
ĐN:- Should you not believe what I said, ask your mother.
– If she were not shy, she would have a good time at the party.
ĐN:- Were she not shy, she would have a good time at the party.
– If I hadn’t seen it, I wouldn’t have believed it.
ĐN:- Had I not seen it, I wouldn’t have believed it.
XI-ĐẢO NGỮ SAU CÁC TRẠNG NGỮ CHỈ PHƯƠNG HƯỚNG HOẶC VỊ TRÍ:
Khi câu có một từ hoặc một cụm trạng ngữ chỉ phương hướng hoặc vị trí thì nội động từ được đảo lên trước chủ ngữ.
– David began to open the parcels. A dictionary was inside the first.
ĐN:- David began to open the parcels. Inside the first was a dictionary.
– A portrait of Lenin was above the fiòlace.
ĐN:- Above the fiòlace was a portrait of Lenin.
– His father sat in an armchair. ĐN:- In an armchair sat his father.
-Động từ TO BE thường được sử dụng trong dạng đảo ngữ này, ngoài ra ta còn dùng các nội động từ chỉ sự chuyển động như: CLIMB, COME, FLY, GO, HANG, LIE, RUN, SIT, STAND, ……..
-Thường chỉ dùng dạng đảo ngữ này khi động từ ở thì quá khứ đơn.
-Trường hợp đảo ngữ này, không sử dụng trợ động từ mà sử dụng trực tiếp động từ đặt trước chủ từ.
-Không đảo ngữ khi chủ từ là đại từ.
(sai): In an armchair sat she.