Direct – Indirect speech Lối nói trực tiếp – gián tiếp

REPORTED SPEECH(Câu tường thuật)

Câu tường thuật (câu gián tiếp) là câu dùng để thuật lại nội dung của lời nói trực tiếp

a.       Nếu động từ của mệnh đề tường thuật dùng ở thì hiện tại thì khi đổi sang câu gián tiếp ta chỉ đổi ngôi; không đổi thì của động từ và trạng từ.

Ex: She says: “I am a teacher.”

      She says that she is a teacher.

Ex: “I am writing a letter now” Tom says.

      Tom says that he is writing a letter now.

b.       Nếu động từ của mệnh đề tường thuật dùng ở thì quá khứ thì khi chuyển sang câu gián tiếp ta đổi ngôi, thì của động từ, trạng từ chỉ thời gian và nơi chốn.

 

I. Thay đổi ngôi (Đại từ nhân xưng, Đại từ sở hữu và Tính từ sở hữu)

1. Ngôi thứ nhất: dựa vào chủ từ của mệnh đề tường thuật; thường đổi sang ngôi thứ ba

I → He / She                    me →   him / her                my → his / her

We → They                        us → them                        our → their

Ex: He said: “I learned English.”

→ He said that he had learnt English.

Ex: She said to me, “My mother gives me a present.”

→  She told me that her mother gave her a present.

 

     2. Ngôi thứ hai: (You, your)

– Xét ý nghĩa của câu và đổi cho phù hợp, thường đổi dựa vào túc từ của mệnh đề tường thuật

Ex: Mary said: “You are late again.”

 → Mary said that you were late again.

Ex: “I will meet you at the airport”, he said to me.

→  He told me that he would meet me at the airport.

     3. Ngôi thứ ba (He / She / Him / Her / His / They / Them / Their): giữ nguyên, không đổi

 

II. Thay đổi về thì trong câu:

 

DIRECT

INDIRECT

Simple presentV1 /Vs(es)Present progressiveam / is / are + V-ing

Present perfect

have / has + P.P

Present perfect progressive

have / has been +V-ing

Simple past

V2 / -ed

Past progressive

was / were + V-ing

Simple future

will + V1

Future progressive

will be + V-ing

 

Modal Verb

can

May

Must

have/has to

Simple pastV2 / V-edPast progressivewas / were + V-ingPast perfect

had + P.P

Past perfect progressive

had been + V-ing

Past perfect

had + P.P

Past perfect progressive

had been + V-ing

Future in the past

would + V1

Future progressive in the past

would be + V-ing

 

Modal Verb in the Past

could

Might

Had to

Had to

 

III. Thay đổi các trạng từ chỉ thời gian và nơi chốn:

 
DIRECT INDIRECT
Now/ Here/ This Then/ There/ That
These Those
Today That day
Yesterday The day before / the previous day
Last year The year before / the previous year

Tonight

That night
Tomorrow The following day / the next day/ the day after
Next month The following month / the next month
Ago before
The day before yesterday Two day before
The day before tomorrow Two day after
 

CÁC THAY ĐỔI CỤ THỂ CHO TỪNG LOẠI CÂU TRONG LỜI NÓI GIÁN TIẾP

1. COMMANDS / REQUESTS (Câu mệnh lệnh, câu đề nghị)

 – Mệnh lệnh khẳng định:

   Direct:             S + V + O: “V1 + O …”

   Indirect:          S + asked / told + O + to-inf + ….

Ex: He said to her: “Keep silent, please.”

→ He told her to keep silent.

“Wash your hands before having dinner, Lan.” the mother said.

→ The mother told Lan to wash her hands before having dinner.

 

– Mệnh lệnh phủ định:

Direct:                 S + V + O: “Don’t + V1 + …”

Indirect:              S + asked / told + O + not + to-inf ….

Ex: “Don’t forget to phone me this afternoon,” he said.

→ He reminded me to phone him that afternoon.

The teacher said to the students: “Don’t talk in the class.”

→ The teacher told the students not to talk in the class.

 

Tùy theo ngữ cảnh trong lời nói động từ tường thuật said hoặc said to có thể đổi thành told, asked, advised, persuaded, directed, begged, encouraged, remind

Ex: The doctor said to his patient: “Do exercise regularly.”

→ The doctor advised his patient to do exercise regularly.

 

2. STATEMENT (Câu trần thuật)

Direct:            S + V + (O) : “clause”

Indirect:         S + told / said + (O) + (that) + clause

Note: said to → told

Ex: Tom said, “I want to visit my friend this weekend.”

→ Tom said (that) he wanted to visit his friend that weekend.

She said to me, “I am going to Dalat next summer.”

→ She told me (that) she was goingto Dalat the following summer.

 

3. QUESTIONS (Câu hỏi)

a.      Yes – No question

Direct:           S + V + (O) : “Aux. V + S + V1 + ….?”

Indirect:        S + asked + O + if / whether + S + V + ….

Ex: He asked: “Have you ever been to Japan, Mary?”

→ He asked Mary if / whether she had ever been to Japan.

“Did you go out last night, Tan?” I asked

→ I asked Tan if / whether he had gone out the night before.

b.      Wh – question

        Direct:           S + V + (O): “Wh- + Aux. V + S + V1 +  …?”

        Indirect:        S + asked + O + Wh- + S + V + ….

Ex: “How long are you waiting for the bus?” he asked me.

→ He asked me how long I was waiting for the bus.

4. DANH ĐỘNG TỪ (V-ING) TRONG LỜI NÓI GIÁN TIẾP

Khi lời nói trực tiếp là lời đề nghị , chúc mừng, cảm ơn, xin lỗi, …động từ tường thuật cùng với danh động từ (V-ing) theo sau nó thường được dùng để chuyển tải nội dung lời nói trên.

a.      Reporting Verb + V-ing + ….

Deny (phủ nhận), admit (thừa nhận), suggest (đề nghị), regret (nuối tiếc), appreciate (đánh giá cao, cảm kích)

Ex: Peter said: “I didn’t steal the painting.”

→ Peter denied stealing the painting.

“Why don’t we go out for a walk?” said the boy.

→    The boy suggested going out for a walk.

b.      Reporting Verb + (Someone) + Preposition + V-ing + ….

–          thank someone for                 (cám ơn ai về ….)

–          accuse someone of                (buộc tội ai về …)

–          congratulate someone on      (chúc mừng ai về ….)

–          warn someone against          (cảnh báo ai về ….)

–          dream of                                (mơ về …)

–          object to                                (chống đối về ….)

–          apologize someone for         (xin lỗi ai về …)

–          insist on                                (khăng khăng dòi …)

–          complain about                     (phàn nàn về ….)

Ex: “I’m happy to know that you win the game. Congratulations!”, Jim said to Mary.

→    Jim congratulated Mary on winning the game.

Daisy said: “Thank you for helping me”

→     Daisy thanked me for helping her.

Note:

1. Why don’t you / Why not / How about   →  suggested + (someone) + V-ing …

Ex: “Why don’t you send her some flowers?” he said.

→ He suggested me sending her some flowers.

2. Let’s  →  suggested + V-ing …

    Let’s not   suggested + not + V-ing …

Ex: “Let’s meet outside the cinema,” he said.

→ He suggested meeting outside the cinema.

She said: “Let’s not talk about that problem again.”

→ She suggested not talking about that problem again.

 

3. Shall we / It’s a good idea      suggested + V-ing …

Ex: “It’s a good idea to go for a picnic this weekend,” she said.

→ She suggested going for a picnic that weekend.

 

5. ĐỘNG TỪ NGUYÊN MẪU (TO-INFINITIVE) TRONG LỜI NÓI GIÁN TIẾP

Khi lời nói gián tiếp là một lời đề nghị, mệnh lệnh, ý định, lời hứa, lời yêu cầu, …động từ tường thuật cùng với động từ nguyên mẫu theo sau nó thường được dùng để chuyển tải nội dung lời nói này.

a. Reporting Verb + To-inf …

– agree                                      demand (đòi hỏi)                     guarantee (bảo đảm)

– hope                                       promise                                  swear (thề)

– threaten (đe dọa)   volunteer     offer (đưa ra đề nghị)

– refuse             consent (bằng lòng)                 decide

Ex: “I will give you my book if you need it,” said my friend.

         → My friend offered to give me her book if I needed it.

b. Reporting Verb + Object + To-inf …

– ask (bảo, yêu cầu)                   advise (khuyên)                       command (ra lệnh)

– expect (mong đợi)                    instruct (hướng dẫn)               invite (mời)
– order (ra lệnh)                          persuade (thuyết phục)            recommend (khuyên)
– remind (nhắc nhở)                    encourage (cổ vũ)                    tell (bảo)
– urge (thúc giục)                        warn (cảnh báo)                      want (muốn, mong muốn)

Ex: “Don’t forget to lock the door,” I said to my sister.

 I reminded my sister to lock the door.

Ann said: “Come to my place whenever you are free.”

Ann invited me to come to her place whenever I was free.

Note:

1. Lời đề nghị:
Would you / Could you / Will you / Can you   
 →   asked + someone + to-inf
Would you mind / Do you mind + V-ing     →    asked + someone + to-inf

Ex: “Can you read the instructions again?” she said.

      → She asked me to read the instructions again.

He said: “Would you mind opening the door, please?”

       → He asked me to open the door.

===========================

Các trường hợp không đổi thì

– Sự thật, sự việc luôn luôn đúng:

“The earth moves round the sun” he said.

–> He said that the earth moves round the sun.

They said: “Sai Gon is busier than Hanoi ”

–>They said Sai Gon is busier than Hanoi.

Lưu ý:
không dùng say + somebody mà dùng tell + somebody hay say something to somebody.

Câu điều kiện loại II và III:

“If I were you, I would leave here” he said.

–> He said that if he were me, he would leave there.

– Wish + past simple/ past perfect:

“I wish I lived in Da Nang”, he said.

–> He said he wished he lived in Da Nang.

– Cấu trúc “it’s time somebody did something”:

“It’s time he woke up”, she said.

–> She said it was time he woke up.

– Would/ should/ ought to/ had better/ used to không chuyển:

“ You’d better work hard” he said

–> He said that I had better work hard.

Các cách chuyển đổi cơ bản

A. Say that + a statement
–> agree (đồng ý), refuse (từ chối), offer (đề nghị), promise (hứa), threaten (dọa) + the infinitive

“All right, I’ll help you” he said.

–> He agreed to help me.

“ Oh, no, I won’t come to your party”, he said.

–> He refused to come to my party.

“I’ll look for the cat for you tomorrow if you like” he said.

–> He offered to look after the cat for me the next day if I liked.

“I’ll visit your parents when I arrive there”, he said

–> He promised to visit my parents when he arrived there.

“I’ll sell the TV set if you keep on watching it all day”, said the father

–> The father threatened to sell the TV set if he kept on watching it all day

B. Say that + a statement
–> accuse …of (buộc tội), admit (thừa nhận), apologise for (xin lỗi), deny (từ chối), insist on + V-ing (khăng khăng)

“You stole the jewels” said the inspector

–> The inspector accused her of stealing the jewels.

“I’ve made the wall dirty” said one student.

–> One student admitted making the wall dirty.

“I’m sorry I’m late” she said.

–> She apologized for being late.

“No, we didn’t enter the garden” said the boy.

–> The boy denied entering my garden.

“Certainly, I’ll buy that car for you”, said he.

–> He insisted on buying me that car.

C. Say to somebody + a statement –> told somebody + that + clause

“I’ve finished all my homework”, he said to me.

–> He told me that he had finished all his homework.

D. Say + a statement –> said that + clause

“I’m going to Hanoi tomorrow”, he said.

–> He said that he was going to Hanoi the next day.

E. Statement with command, request, advice, invitation, offer –> advise, ask, beg, encourage,
invite, order, tell, warn, remind…

“You’d better hurry”, he said.

–> He advised me to hurry.

“Post the letter for me, will you?”he said.

–> He asked me to post the letter for him.

“Make another try, please”, he said.

–> He encouraged me to make another try

“Don’t drive too fast”, he said.

–> He warned me not to drive too fast.

“Remember to close the door”, he said.

–> He reminded me to close the door.

“Don’t forget to come at 6 a.m tomorrow”, he said.

–> He reminded to come at 6 a.m the next day.

F. Questions in indirect speech

– Thời, đại từ, tính từ sở hữu, trạng từ chuyển như ở câu tường thuật.

– Yes-no questions –> asked/wanted (to know) if/whether

“Are you absent from your classes today?” he asked.

–> He asked/wanted to know if I was absent from my classes that day.

–  Wh-questions –> asked/wanted (to know) + question word + clause. [Câu hỏi bắt đầu who, whom, what, which,
where, when, why, how: Các từ để hỏi trên sẽ được giữ nguyên trong câu gián tiếp:]

“Where do you often meet your friends?” she said.

–> She asked where I often met my friends.

G. Questions with “shall I…”–> 4 loại sau:

• About future event (sự kiện trong tương lai)

“Shall we attend the meeting tomorrow”, she said.

–>She asked if they would attend the meeting the next day

• Request for instruction or advice (Lời hướng dẫn hoặc lời khuyên)

“Shall I read it, mother?” he said.

–> He asked his mother if he should read it.

• Offer to do something

“Shall we bring you some new books?” she said.

–> She offered to bring me some new books.

• Suggest to do something

“Shall we go to the cinema tonight”, he said.

–> He suggested going to the cinema that night.

H. Questions with “Will you, would you, could you…?” (yêu cầu, đề nghị, mời)–> offer, invite, order,
ask, told.

“ Will you come to my party tomorrow?” he said.

–> He invited me to come to his party the next day.

“Could you get ready at 6p.m tonight?” he said.

–> He told/asked me to get ready at 6p.m that night.

“Would you like some cigarettes?” he said.

–> He offered me some cigarettes.

“Will you shut your mouth?” he said.

–> He ordered me to shut my mouth.

I. Let’s do…–> suggest + V-ing
(nếu bao gồm cả người nói thực hiện hành động)

Let’s do…–> suggest + that S should do…(có thể bao gồm hoặc không bao gồm người nói thực
hiện hành động)

“Let’s go to the cinema tonight”, he said.

–> He suggested going to the cinema that night. (anh ta cũng đi)

–> He suggested that they should go to the cinema that night

J. Yes, let’s do…–> agree

No, let’s not do… –> be against the idea.

“Let’s eat out tonight” said the mother.

“Yes, let’s” said the son.

“No, let’s not” said the father.

–> The mother suggested eating out that night and the son agreed but the father was against the idea.

K. Must –> had to

“I must finish my work tomorrow”, he said.

–> He said that he had to finish his work the next day.

“Must you go soon?” she said.

–> He asked if I had to go soon.

L. Câu cảm thán trong lời nói gián tiếp

• What + a + noun! /how + adj

–> said that + clause

–> gave an exclamation of delight (vui mừng, tán thưởng), disgust (kinh tởm), honor (sợ), surprise (ngạc nhiên)

“How beautiful the picture is”, he said.

–> He said that the picture was beautiful

–> He gave an exclamation of delight.

“What a dirty kitchen!” she said.

–> She said that the kitchen was dirty.

–> She gave an exclamation of disgust.

“How wonderful”, he said.

–> He said that it was wonderful.

–> He gave an exclamation of surprise.

N. “Yes/no” –> subject + trợ động từ

“Have you finished your homework?”he said

“Yes”, she said

–> He asked her if she had finished her homework and she said she had.

“Are you ready for the exam?” he said.

“No”, she said.

–> He asked if she was ready for the exam and she said she wasn’t.

M. “Thank”–> subject + thanked

“Would you like to have dinner with me tonight?”, he said. “thank you, I’d love to” she said.

–> He invited her to have dinner with him that night. She thanked him and said she would love to.

“Good luck”, he said –> he wished me luck.

“Congratulation!”, he said –> he congratulated me.

———————–

Bài tập: Chuyển những câu sau sang gián tiếp.

1. “Shall I help you with the exercises?” he said.

2. “Shall we give him a birthday cake?” he said.

3. “Could I leave early on Friday?” he said.

4. “Where shall we meet tonight?” she said.

5. “Will you have a drink?” he said.

6. “How far is it from here to college?” he said.

7. “Do you often have breakfast at 6.30 a.m?” he said

8. “Don’t swim too far, boys” she said.

9. “Do come in and have a drink” he said.

10. “Remember to wake me up” she said.

11. “If I were you, I would learn English”, she said.

12. “Why don’t we go camping this Sunday?” he said.

13. “Would you like to come to my birthday party next Sunday?” she said.

14. “Let’s have a talk on the new film”, he said.

15. “ Shall I do the cleaning up for you?” he said.

16. “What a clever boy!” she said.

17. “How ugly!” he said.

18. “Did you prepare your meal?” he said. “No” I said.

19. “Happy birthday”, he said.

20. “Take your seat”, he said. “thank”, I said.

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