Topic 4: Bài Tập Lời Nói Gián Tiếp – Reported speech exercises

Topic 4:

Reported speech, Indirect speech – Grammar exercises

 

Statements

1) If the introductory sentence starts in the present (Susan says), there is no backshift of tenses in Reported speech.

Example:
Direct speech: Susan: “I work in an office.”
Reported speech: Susan says that she works in an office.

2) If the introductory sentence starts in the past (Susan said), there is often backshift of tenses in Reported speech. (see: Note)

Example:
Susan: “I work in an office.”
Susan said that she worked in an office.

Backshift of tenses
from to
Simple Present Simple Past
Simple Past Past Perfect
Present Perfect
Past Perfect
will would
Progressive forms
am/are/is was/were
was/were had been
has been
had been

 

Backshift of tenses
from to
Peter: “I work in the garden.” Peter said that he worked in the garden.
Peter: “I worked in the garden.” Peter said that he had worked in the garden.
Peter: “I have worked in the garden.”
Peter: “I had worked in the garden.”
Peter: “I will work in the garden.” Peter said that he would work in the garden.
Peter: “I can work in the garden.” Peter said that he could work in the garden.
Peter: “I may work in the garden.” Peter said that he might work in the garden.
Peter: “I would work in the garden.”
(could, might, should, ought to)
Peter said that he would work in the garden.
(could, might, should, ought to)
Progressive forms
Peter: “I’m working in the garden.” Peter said that he was working in the garden.
Peter: “I was working in the garden.” Peter said that he had been working in the garden.
Peter: “I have been working in the garden.”
Peter: “I had been working in the garden.”

If the sentence contains an expression of time, you must change it as well.

Peter: “I worked in the garden yesterday.”
Peter said that he had worked in the garden the day before.

Shifting of expressions of time

this (evening) that (evening)
today/this day that day
these (days) those (days)
now then
(a week) ago (a week) before
last weekend the weekend before / the previous weekend
here there
next (week) the following (week)
tomorrow the next/following day

Note:

In some cases the backshift of tenses is not necessary, e.g. when statements are still true.

John: “My brother is at Leipzig university.”
John said that his brother was at Leipzig university. or
John said that his brother is at Leipzig university.

or

Mandy: “The sun rises in the East.”
Mandy said that the sun rose in the East. or
Mandy said that the sun rises in the East.

Direct:     “ S + V + ………………………………….”

Reported:  Speaker  + said /  ( told + O) + that +  S + V…..

 

Exercises 1:       

         1. “I have something to show you,” Jack said to her.

=> Jack told ………………………………………………………………………………………

2. “ I’m going away tomorrow, mother,” he said.

=> He told …………………………………………………………………………………….

3. He said, “ My wife has just been made a judge.”

=> He said ……………………………………………………………………………………

4. “ I’m living with my parents at present,” she said.

=> She said ………………………………………………………………………………….

5. “I’ve made a terrible mistake.” said Peter.

=> Peter said ………………………………………………………………………………..

Answer =>

Imperative Sentence into the Indirect Speech

Imperative sentences do not normally have an expressed subject. This is because the subject ‘you’is usually understood. As a result of this, imperative sentences begin with a verb in the simple present tense.An imperative sentence expresses ideas such as advice, order, request, suggestion, instruction, permission, allowance etc.In order to change an imperative sentence into the indirect speech, we use a to-infinitive. A –that clause is also possible in some cases. Note that instead of ‘said’we use one of the following reporting verbs:Advise, command, request, suggest, threaten, order, forbid, decree, propose, entreat, prompt, counsel, pardon, beg, persuade, instruct etc.
Notes:After suggest, we use a –that clause and not an infinitive.
The verb propose is not followed by an object.
The verb forbid itself conveys a negative sense. Therefore, we do not use notin the following clause.Study the following examples carefully.Direct: The old woman said to the boy, ‘Please help me.’
Indirect: The old woman requested the boy to help her.
Direct: I said to him, ‘Love and obey your parents.’
Indirect: I advised him to love and obey his parents. OR I advised that he should love and obey his parents.
Direct: The teacher said to the students, ‘Work hard.’
Indirect: The teacher advised the boys to work hard. OR The teacher suggested that the boys should work hard.
Direct: Jim said to me, ‘Please lend me your pen.’
Indirect: Jim requested me to lend him my pen.
Direct: The doctor said to the patient, ‘Quit smoking.’
Indirect: The doctor advised the patient to quit smoking. OR The doctor suggested that the patient should quit smoking.
Direct: The officer said to the clerk, ‘Do it immediately.’
Indirect: The officer ordered the clerk to do it immediately.
Direct: The teacher said to the boy, ‘Come in, please.’
Indirect: The teacher allowed (or asked) the boy to come in.
Direct: He said to me, ‘Post this letter at once.’
Indirect: He ordered me to post that letter at once.
Direct: I said to the children, ‘Do not make a noise.’
Indirect: I forbade the children to make a noise. (NOT I forbade the children not to make a noise.)
Direct: I said to her, ‘Don’t mention his name.’
Indirect: I forbade her to mention his name.
Direct: I said to the child, ‘Do not look down into the well.’
Indirect: I warned the child not to look down into the well.
Direct: He said to me, ‘Wait here till I return.’
Indirect: He asked me to wait there till he returned.

Exercises 2:         1. “Lend me your pen for a moment,” I said to Mary.=> I told Mary……………………………………………………………………….2. “Help your mother, Peter,” Mr. Pitt said.=> Mr Pitt asked ……………………………………………………………………3. “Come to the cinema with me,” he asked her.=> He asked her ……………………………………………………………………4. “Open your bag, please,” said the store detective.=> The store detective told me………………………………………………….

5. “Please read it before you sign it.” he said to his client

=> He told the client ………………………………………………………………

Answer =>

Direct:                          “Don’t + Vo …………………..”

Reported: Speaker + told / asked + O + NOT TO + Vo…..”

 

Exercises 3:

1. “Don’t argue with me,” the teacher said to the boy.

=> The teacher asked the boy………………………………………………………….

2. “Don’t lean your bicycles against my windows, boys,” said the shopkeeper.

=> The shopkeeper told ………………………………………………………………….

3. “ Don’t wait till tomorrow, boys” the teacher said.

=> The teacher told ………………………………………………………………………..

4.  “Don’t go near the water, children,” she said.

=> She asked ………………………………………………………………………………

5. “ Don’t bathe when the red flag is flying,” said the lifeguard.

=> The lifeguard asked us…………………………………………………………….

Answer =>

 

*Yes/ No Question:
Direct:        “ Do/ does / did
Is / am / are….              + S + ……. ?”
Can / will / Have…
Reported:  Speaker + asked + O + If / whether + S + V

1. “ Have you enrolled for more than one class ?” said Peter
=> Peter aked me…………………………………………
2. “ Are you working as well as studying, Peter ?” She said
=> She asked ……………………………………………
3. “ Do you want to buy any second – hand books ?” said Bill
=> Bill asked me…………………………………………
4. “ Did you play for your school team ?” she asked him.
=> She asked him ……………………………………….
5. “ Can I bring my dog into the compartment with me, Tom ?” said Mary.
=> Mary asked……………………………………………
Answer =>

*W-h Question:

1. “Why did you travel first class ?” I asked him
=> I asked him…………………………………………………………………………..
2. “ Whose car did you borrow last night ?” I said to him
=> I asked him…………………………………………………………………………..
3.  “Where were you last night, Mr Jones ?” she said
=> She asked…………………………………………………………………………….
4.  “ What is your new house like ?” I asked her
=> I asked her……………………………………………………………………………
5.  He said, “ What is happening ?”
=> He asked………………………………………………………………………………
Answer =>

+ Last exercises: Choose the word or phrase to complete each one below.

1. She said I _______ an angel.
A. am     B. was     C. were     D. have been
2. I have ever told you he _______ unreliable.
A. is     B. were     C. had been     D. would be
3. John asked me _______ in English.
A. what does this word mean     B. what that word means
C. what did this word mean     D. what that word meant
4. Laura said she had worked on the assignment since _______.
A. yesterday     B. two days ago     C. the day before      D. the next day
5. John asked me _______ that film the night before.
A. that I saw     B. had I seen     C. if I had seen        D. if had I seen
6. She asked me _______.
A. where was her umbrella     B. where her umbrella was
C. where were her umbrella     D. where her umbrella were
7.  Nancy asked me why I had not gone to New York the summer _______.
A. before    B. ago     C. last     D. previous
8. Andrew told me that they _______ fish two previous days.
A. have not eaten        B. had not eaten
C. did not eat        D. would not eat
9. Jason told me that he _______ his best in the exam the following day.
A. had done    B. will do     C. would do    D. was going

10. Did they say they __________ me again ?
A. will phone    B. have phoned    C. would phone    D. had phoned.

Answer =>

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